Across three conjoint experimental studies (N=15,233), we demonstrate that vaccinated people express discriminatory attitudes towards the unvaccinated, as high as the discriminatory attitudes suffered by common targets like immigrant and minority populations3,4.5. In contrast, there is an absence of evidence that unvaccinated individuals display discriminatory attitudes towards vaccinated people, except for the presence of negative affect in Germany and United States. We find evidence in support of discriminatory attitudes against the unvaccinated in all countries except Hungary and Romania and find that discriminatory attitudes are more strongly expressed in cultures with stronger cooperative norms.
Rights? What Rights?
Elites and the vaccinated general public appealed to moral obligations to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake10,11 but the present findings suggest that discriminatory attitudes including support for the removal of fundamental rights simultaneously emerged.
Meanwhile, in the U.S.
Furthermore, vaccination status is consistently aligned with other political opinions such as trust in science and the authorities, and, in the case of the US, partisanship.
The Unintelligent Unvaccinated
In the context of COVID-19 vaccines, this other dimension may also be activated as, for example, the vaccinated may perceive the unvaccinated as being unintelligent and incompetent for believing false information regarding vaccinations30. Discriminatory attitudes in the context of COVID-19 vaccines may, therefore, come to have a broader cognitive basis.
The paper goes into:
Exclusions from Families in 21 countries
Stereotypes and exclusionary attitudes
Culture and exclusionary attitudes
Antipathy across six countries
Restriction of Rights in the United States
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